The impacts that generally do occur during most El Niño events include below-average rainfall over Indonesia and northern South America, while above average rainfall occurs in southeastern South America, eastern equatorial Africa, and the southern United States.
Where does it rain in El Niño?
In the United States, the strongest change in rainfall is in the southeast, the region closest to the pool of warm Pacific water. During El Niño years, such as 1997, the southeast receives more rain than average.
Where is flooding most likely to occur during an El Niño?
The worst-affected regions are parts of southern Africa, the Sahel, western Africa, Australia, western United States and parts of South America, as the map below shows. In El Niño years, 10 per cent of the globe sees higher than normal damages, while 19 per cent sees lower than normal.
How El Nino affects summer rainfall?
Correlation with El Nino Southern Oscillation is statistically significant for all summer rainfall areas. El Nino triggers drought and low streamflows and La Nina lead to high rainfall and high streamflows for all summer rainfall areas. Streamflows volumes are 4 to 2 time higher during La Nina than during El Nino.
Does El Nino cause flooding in Australia?
This is particularly true around Queensland, where cyclones are half as likely to cross the coast during El Niño years compared to neutral years. This means a decreased likelihood of major damage and flooding related to strong winds, high seas and heavy rains associated with tropical cyclones.
Where is El Niño the worst?
El Niño and La Niña have the greatest impact on countries around the equator. This includes Central and South America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, and Eastern and Southern Africa. In other words, they hit some of the world’s poorest regions the hardest. What’s more, these regions rely heavily on agriculture.
In which ocean does the weather event El Niño take place?
El Niño is a weather pattern that occurs in the Pacific Ocean. During this time, unusual winds cause warm surface water from the equator to move east, toward Central and South America. El Niño can cause more rain than usual in South and Central America and in the United States.
What climate condition occurs during El Niño?
An El Niño condition occurs when surface water in the equatorial Pacific becomes warmer than average and east winds blow weaker than normal. The opposite condition is called La Niña. During this phase of ENSO, the water is cooler than normal and the east winds are stronger. El Niños typically occur every 3 to 5 years.
Does El Niño cause drought?
One such phenomenon is the periodic occurrence of El Niño. During El Niño episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation are disrupted, hence triggering extreme climate events around the globe: droughts, floods and affecting the intensity and frequency of hurricanes.
How does El Niño cause drought in South Africa?
Wanders: “The stronger the El Niño signal, the less water is available in the region. … These lower discharges also have a direct influence on water storage levels in the reservoirs. If there is a continuous shortage of water feeding the reservoirs, this will inevitably lead to water shortages and thus drought.
How does El Niño affect the water cycle?
It is well known that evaporation rates increase as temperature rises. … During El Niño periods, reduced precipitation in these regions leads to lower terrestrial moisture content, so there is less water in the soil available to evaporate.
Does El Niño cause droughts or floods?
El Niño brought below-average rainfall resulting in drought in the south and parts of the central region of the country. … La Niña will likely lead to above-normal rainfall between January and March 2017, increasing the chance of moderate to severe flooding in some river basins in the south and central regions.
Is El Nino worse than La Nina?
El Niño and La Niña events occur every two to seven years, on average, but they don’t occur on a regular schedule. Generally, El Niño occurs more frequently than La Niña.